The Global Methane Budget 2000–2012

Abstract
Copyright statement
1Introduction
2Methodology
2.1   Processing of emission maps
2.2   Definition of the boxplots
2.3   Definition of regions and source categories
3Methane sources and sinks
3.1   Anthropogenic methane sources
3.1.1      Reported global inventories
3.1.2      Total anthropogenic methane emissions
3.1.3      Methane emissions from fossil fuel production and use
3.1.3.1         Coal mining
3.1.3.2         Oil and natural gas systems
3.1.3.3         Shale gas
3.1.4      Agriculture and waste
3.1.4.1         Livestock: enteric fermentation and manure management
3.1.4.2         Waste management
3.1.4.3         Rice cultivation
3.1.5      Biomass and biofuel burning
3.1.5.1         Biomass burning
3.1.5.2         Biofuel burning
3.2   Natural methane sources
3.2.1      Wetlands
3.2.2      Other inland water systems (lakes, ponds, rivers, estuaries)
3.2.3      Onshore and offshore geological sources
3.2.4      Termites
3.2.5      Wild animals
3.2.6      Oceanic sources
3.2.7      Terrestrial permafrost and hydrates
3.2.8      Vegetation
3.3   Methane sinks and lifetime
3.3.1      OH oxidation
3.3.2      Stratospheric loss
3.3.4      Soil uptake
3.3.5      CH4 lifetime
4Atmospheric observations and top-down inversions
4.1   Atmospheric observations
4.1.1      In situ CH4 observations and atmospheric growth rate at the surface
4.1.2      Satellite data of column-averaged CH4
4.1.3      Methane isotope observations
4.1.4      Other atmospheric observations
4.2   Top-down inversions
4.2.1      Principle of inversions
4.2.2      Reported inversions
5Methane budget: top-down and bottom-up comparison
5.1   Global methane budget
5.1.1      Global budget of total methane emissions
5.1.1.1         Top-down estimates
5.1.1.2         Bottom-up estimates
5.1.2      Global methane emissions per source category
5.1.2.1         Wetlands
5.1.2.2         Other natural emissions
5.1.2.3         Anthropogenic emissions
5.2   Regional methane budget
5.2.1      Regional budget of total methane emissions
5.2.2      Regional methane emissions per source category
6Future developments, missing elements and remaining uncertainties
7Conclusions
8Data availability